Machell Cox, E. Victoria & Albert Museum Catalogue of Engraved Gems. London: Typescript, 1935, Part 1, pp.50a-51.
List of Objects in the Art Division, South Kensington, Acquired During the Year 1869, Arranged According to the Dates of Acquisition. London : Printed by George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O. p. 88.
Intaglio depicting Venus Anadyomene, oval chrome chalcedony, set in later gold ring; ca. 200BC-100CE, Italy
Height: 12.5 mm, Width: 9 mm
Engraved gemstones of all dates were widely collected in Italy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Many were brought back by British Grand Tourists, and important collections were formed.
This gem was part of the collection of the Reverend Chauncy Hare Townshend (1798-1868), who bequeathed his important collection to the South Kensington Museum in 1869. Although the gemstone collection is not as comprehensive as that found at the Natural History Museum, it is of particular historic interest as its formation pre-dates the development of many synthetic stones and artificial enhancements. All the stones were mounted as rings before they came to the Museum. Some are held in the Sculpture Section, other more elaborately mounted ones in the Metalwork Section.
As well as being a clergyman, collector and dillettante, the Reverend Townshend wrote poetry. He met Robert Southey in 1815 and through him the Wordsworths, the Coleridges and John Clare. He was a friend of Charles Dickens and dedicatee of his novel 'Great Expectations'.
Historical significance: The type of 'Venus Anadyomene' (Venus rising from the sea), shown standing naked and wringing water from her hair, was found in classical sculpture and may derive from a lost image by the Greek artist Apelles.
Ring ca. 1830-60
Attribution note: Translucent mid-green chalcedony. Colour derives from chromium rather than nickel as in chrysoprase and iron as in plasma, evidenced by red colour under Chelsea Colour Filter. Small black inclusions.
The art of engraving gemstones has been admired since the early days of the Roman empire. It was revived in Europe during the Renaissance, and again in the 18th and 19th centuries. Cameos and intaglios were prized and collected, sometimes as symbols of power and mounted in jewelled settings, sometimes as small objects for private devotion or enjoyment. The image of Venus Anadyomene (the goddess Venus rising from the sea) dates back to classical Greek sculpture, and typically represents Venus standing and wringing water from her hair.