Inventory of Art Objects Acquired in the Year 1863 In: Inventory of the Objects in the Art Division of the Museum at South Kensington, Arranged According to the Dates of their Acquisition. Vol I. London: Printed by George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O., 1868, p. 53
Trusted, Marjorie, ed. The Making of Sculpture. The Materials and Techniques of European Sculpture. London: 2007, p. 145, pl. 271
Machell Cox, E., Victoria & Albert Museum Catalogue of Engraved Gems. London, Typescript, 1935, Part 1, p.30
Cameo in form of a scarab beetle, and on the reverse intaglio of a faun or satyr, oval amethyst, set in gold ring; Italy, 300-200 BC
Height: 15 mm, Width: 11 mm, Depth: 7 mm
Engraved gemstones of all dates were widely collected in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Many were brought back from Italy by British Grand Tourists, and important collections were formed.
Purchased from John Webb. John Webb was a London dealer who travelled and purchased widely in Europe. He placed large numbers of objects including many important ivories on loan at the Museum, selling them to the Museum as funds became available, particularly in the 1860s. Webb had a collection of around 170 pieces of antique jewellery from which around twenty, many containing engraved gems, were eventually selected for purchase by the Museum. The majority are held in the Metalwork collection, 2 in the Sculpture collection.
Historical significance: For similar intaglio see 'Classical Gems: Ancient and Modern Intaglios and Cameos in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge' by Martin Henig, 1994, p.63, no.104.
Vertical oval cameo/intaglio. Pale purplish translucent amethyst bead, pierced through and attached with revolving pin to gold ring. One side is domed and carved in the form of a scarab beetle. The other side is flat and depicts a faun or satyr with a short tail, naked except for a cloak flying from his shoulders. He is standing on his right leg facing right, his left leg drawn up possibly in order to adjust his sandle. In the field a shepherd's crook. Hatched border. Set in a gold ring.
Ring ca. 1800-50
Attribution note: The pale purplish colour is concentrated towards the head end of the scarab
The art of engraving gemstones can be traced back to ancient Greece in the 8th century BC and earlier. Techniques passed down to the Egyptians and then to the Romans. There were major revivals of interest in engraved gems in Europe during the Byantine era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and again in the 18th and 19th centuries. At each stage cameos and intaglios, these skillful carvings on a minute scale, were much prized and collected, sometimes as symbols of power mounted in jewelled settings, sometimes as small objects for private devotion or enjoyment. The scarab is an ancient symbol dating back to around 8,000 BC. For the ancient Egyptians, the scarab beetle pushing the ball of dung containing its eggs was a metaphor for the daily passage of the sun across the sky, and thus for the concept of rebirth. Carved scarabs exist from giants 15 metres long and 9 metres high, to tiny amulets used as charms or in burials, and seal stones or ornaments for personal use. Materials used vary according to perceived properties of the stone, or intended use. The popularity of scarabs as charms and ornaments persisted, and they continued to be made, the skill passing from Egypt to Greece, and thence to Italy. The intaglio carving on the flat underside of this one places it in Italy around 300 BC.