King, Donald. 'Some notes on warp-faced compound weaves'. Bulletin du CIETA. Lyon: Centre International d'étude des Textiles Anciens, 1968, pp. 9-19.
Stein, Aurel, Serindia: Detailed Report of Exploration in Central Asia and Westernmost China Carried Out and Described Under the Orders of H.M Indian Government , 5 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921), vol. II, p.1059. Vol.IV.Pls. CVI & CXXI.
Zhao Feng, ed. Textiles from Dunhuang in UK Collections. Shanghai: Donghua University Press, 2007. pp. 274.
Stein Textile Loan Collection. On loan from the Government of India and the Archaeological Survey of India. Copyright: Government of India
Late 7th century to 9th century (made)
Body and tie of a sutra wrapper, polychrome patterned weave.
[Sutra wrapper] Length: 30.5 cm, Width: 33.5 cm
[Sutra wrapper] Length: 50 cm, Width: 28 cm
Dunhuang is at the eastern end of the southern Silk Road, in present-day Gansu Province. It lies between the western reaches of China and the Tarim Basin. When China began to expand into Central Asia during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), Dunhuang served as a base for military operations and trade. In the succeeding centuries, Buddhist shrines were established southeast of Dunhuang in a series of man-made caves called Qianfodong, "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" (today also known as the Mogao Grottoes). Here spectacular cave temples were cut out of the cliffs, beginning in the fourth century AD. Over a period of several centuries, communities of Buddhist monks filled the caves with splendid sculpture and wall paintings. These included colossal Buddha statues, painted clay sculptures of deities, elaborate murals of Buddhist legends, and thousands of tiny painted Buddha images; all of which gave the site its name, Qianfodong. Buddhist cave temples had first been established in at Bamiyan (Afghanistan) and Gandhara (formerly in India, now Pakistan). At Qianfodong, Stein found paintings of graceful figures in the Gandharan style among landscapes and buildings that were distinctly Chinese; a fusion of Indian and Chinese art, which he had noted elsewhere along the Silk Road.
In 1900, a Daoist monk named Wang Yuanlu discovered a secret cave at Qianfodung, which contained thousands of documents and paintings. Stein purchased a significant amount of this material from Wang during his visit to the Dunhuang in 1907. Among the many religious works were Buddhist, Jewish, Nestorian, Daoist and Confucian texts; all of which dated from approximately 400 to 1000 A.D. Numerous languages were represented as well, including Chinese, Sanskrit, Tibetan and Hebrew. Stein also acquired many textile pieces. Most of these were silk, for Dunhuang lay on the main trade route between silk-growing regions of China and Central Asia. Elaborate embroideries depicted Buddhist legends and processions of donors. Patterned silks included Chinese and Sassanian (Persian) designs. From China came floral and geometric patterns, combined with figures of animals and birds. Sassanian motifs included pairs of confronted ducks, lions, and other beasts, combined with medallions and quatrefoils. Stein also found undecorated silks used as processional banners and valances for decorating bases of statues. The cave was sealed soon after 1000 A.D., apparently to protect the contents from invading armies. The V&A holds, on loan, a large number of textiles from Dunhuang, including plain and pattern woven silks in many colours, painted Buddhist banners and canopies, and wrappers for Buddhist texts.
1. Damask on plain weave: Warp: silk, single, dark red, 40 warps/cm; Weft: silk, single, dark red, 41 wefts/cm; Weave structure: 3/1S twill for pattern on 1/1 plain weave for foundation
2. Border with floral pattern, Jin in twill: Warp: silk, white, blue, light brown and green, 48 groups/cm; Main weft: silk, single, beige, 13 wefts/cm; Binding weft: silk, single, beige, 13 wefts/cm. Weave structure: 2/1S warp faced compound twill
3. Silk in pain weave: Warp: silk, single, dark red, 30 warps/cm; Weft: silk, single, dark red, 19 wefts/cm. Weave structure: 1/1 plain weave
[Sutra wrapper] Sutra wrapper tie consisting of two strips of polychrome patterned weave silk of blue ground with floral pattern in green, cream and orange, stitched together in a cross shape.
[Sutra wrapper] Remains of the main body of a sutra wrapper, rectangular in shape. Monochrome patterned weave red silk with lattice-work design and borders of polychrome patterned weave silk of blue ground with floral pattern in green, cream and orange. Piece has been backed in places with two pieces of plain weave dark red silk.
Found in Cave 17 of the Mogao Grottoes (Caves of the Thousand Buddhas).
These textiles form the remains of a Buddhist manuscript wrapper. They were recovered from Cave 17 of the Mogao Grottoes. This shrine site is one of China’s great Buddhist pilgrimage complexes and is situated near the oasis town of Dunhuang.
The site is also part of an area now referred to as the Silk Road, a series of overland trade routes that crossed Asia, from China to Europe. The most notable item traded was silk. Camels and horses were used as pack animals and merchants passed their goods from oasis to oasis. The Silk Road was also important for the exchange of ideas – while silk textiles travelled west from China, Buddhism entered China from India in this way.
These fragments were brought back from Central Asia by the explorer and archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1862–1943). The Victoria and Albert Museum has around 600 ancient and medieval textiles recovered by Stein at the beginning of the twentieth century. The textiles range in date from the second century BC to the twelfth century AD. Some are silk while others are made from the wool of a variety of different animals.