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1936 (the spelunker thinks)
Rose Kerr, Chinese Art and Design, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1991, nr.6.
Ming Wilson, 'Liangzhu Jades Rediscovered' in Oriental Art, Winter 1995/96, pp.2-8.
Purchased with the assistance of The Art Fund, the Vallentin Bequest, Sir Percival David and the Universities China Committee
ca. 3200 BC-2200 BC (made)
Height: 40.3 cm
China, room 44
About 2500 BC
A cong is square in section with a round hole bored through its centre.
Carved nephrite jade
Liangzhu culture, south China
Museum no. A.40-1936 
China, room 44, case 8
Nephrite jade museum_number
Opaque brown. A cong of 17 sections, drilled from both ends, the meeting point in the middle is no more than 3cm in diameter.
A ‘cong’ is a jade cylinder that is square on the outside with a round perforation in the middle. The outside walls are usually divided into sections by horizontal cuts in the four corners. The height of ‘cong’ varies drastically, ranging from 49 cm to a mere 3 cm. Tall ‘cong’ were definitely more difficult to make than short ones.
An ancient Chinese text called ‘Zhouli’ ('Rites of Zhou') states that the ‘cong’ was used as a sacrifice to the Earth. Archaeology has revealed that it served a ritual function in Neolithic times.